Buy The FA Cup semi-final match programme at Wembley, online or download via the Apple Newsstand – The FA Cup

Then for Sunday’s FA Cup semi-final, where Premier League rivals Aston Villa take on Liverpool, we have views and comment from both dressing rooms.

Whether you will be at the semi-finals, sat at home watching on BBC One or BT Sport, or down the pub, you can get your hands on the m88 official matchday programme.

Villa boss Tim Sherwood, goalkeeper Shay Given and forward Scott Sinclair are targeting a place back at Wembley on 30 May.

Two places in The FA Cup Final are at stake this weekend as Reading, Arsenal, Aston Villa and Liverpool travel to Wembley hoping to book their spot in the 30 May showpiece.

From the Gunners dug-out, Arsene Wenger is looking for a second FA Cup success in two years, while Olivier Giroud and Gabriel are desperate for victory under the arch.

Reading v Arsenal

The FA Cup Semi-Final

5.20pm, Saturday 18 April 2015

Wembley Stadium connected by EE

Live on BBC One

Meanwhile Reds gaffer Brendan Rogers, goalkeeper Simon Mignolet and defender Kolo Toure know they will need to be at their best to reach the Final.

In the programme for the weekend’s first game between Championship outfit Reading and holders Arsenal, hear from Royals chief Steve Clarke, Hal Robson-Kanu and Michael Hector.

And here’s how…

You can buy your copy of Saturday’s programme from Wembley Stadium on Saturday, priced £5, or order online from the England store.

Fans can also download the digital version of the programme directly to your device from the Apple Newsstand, or the audio edition here.

Fans can also download the digital version of the programme directly to your device from the Apple Newsstand, or the audio edition here.

We also learn more about the fascinating story of former Arsenal and Reading legend William Garbutt.

Aston Villa v Liverpool

The man who starred for both sides in the early 20th century before going on to become a manager in Italy - and took charge of some of world football’s most famous clubs.

You can buy Sunday’s programme from Wembley Stadium on Sunday, priced £5, or order online from the England store.

The FA Cup Semi-Final

3pm, Sunday 19 April 2015

Wembley Stadium connected by EE

Live on BT Sport

There’s also a look back at some classic Villa-Liverpool FA Cup encounters down the years.

And there is loads more besides https://www.m88u.comGoing Here

Football: REDS IN THE FAST LANE! Premier League football We’re hitting top gear at right time – Crouch.

Eight goals against Besiktas, four again against Porto, three at Newcastle, two against Fulham.

Ferguson said: “Louis’ last full game before the match at Bolton was last December. They have come off the back of a fantastic result, beating Manchester United, and not many teams do that.

“We are unbeaten in the league. We just have to stay focused.”

EURO JOY: Liverpool’s Peter Crouch celebrates his goal with Steven Gerrard during the 4-1 victory over Porto in the Champions League this week

“We did not have the best of starts in Europe but we are still unbeaten in the league, and we have to keep that going.”

He added: “I would say things are really coming together now. We have to remember that when people say we have had a slow start so we have to keep the good form going.”


Crouch said: “It is starting to come good now. In fact, they have lost just two of 22 games this term and are still unbeaten in the Barclays Premier League.

On tomorrow’s task against Gary Megson’s new charges, Crouch said: “Bolton will be tough. If we keep going I am sure we can end the season on a high.

He managed a further 79 minutes against Sporting Lisbon in the Champions League in midweek and Ferguson must now decide whether to keep him in his starting line-up as his old club Fulham visit Old Trafford on Monday night, with Wayne Rooney pencilled in for his return.


No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the m88 copyright holder.

And they return to that competition tomorrow when improving Bolton visit Anfield, aiming to halt the Reds’ march of four straight wins which have yielded 17 goals.

MANCHESTER United manager Sir Alex Ferguson admits he must tread carefully to ensure Louis Saha gets back to 100% fitness.

PETER Crouch believes Liverpool are running into form just at the right time to ensure a glittering second half to the season.

The big striker, who is having to fight hard for every appearance in the club’s forward line, can still enthuse about a run which sees Liverpool unbeaten in seven games. We are confident at the moment so I am sure we will go on to have a strong second half to the season.. All rights reserved.

The French striker has suffered from a series of injury problems since joining the Red Devils from Fulham in January 2004 and played his first 90 minutes for almost a year in the defeat at Bolton last weekend.

“They will be confident and you know they will give 100%. We have to be careful, but he felt great against Sporting and that’s encouraging.”

Copyright 2007 Gale, Cengage Learning

Get More Information Going Here

Ferguson speaks out against ’39th game’

Ferguson made his opposition public as his team arrived in Japan to play 12bet in FIFA’s Club World Cup.

Ferguson’s team face a fixture backlog after returning home from Japan where they have a semifinal against Asian champions Gamba Osaka on Thursday with the final scheduled for Sunday.

“You look at our domestic program allied to our cup competitions. It is impossible.”

The long-serving manager in the English Premier League cannot see the need for an additional match, citing fixture congestion as the primary reason.

“I think it is mainly the media in Britain who don’t take this tournament as seriously as we do,” he said.

“I don’t think there will ever be a 39th game and I don’t believe there should be,” Ferguson told the Press Association.

However, the United manager was better disposed to Club World Cup, which comes at an awkward time in the English season.

As well as their defense of the Premier League and Champions League titles, United have also reached the semifinals of the League Cup and will begin their FA Cup challenge next month.

Football fans, the chance to have YOUR say on CNN is here!

Premier League chief executive Richard Scudamore has still not abandoned his original plan, due to start in the 2010-11 season, but Ferguson’s opposition is sure to be a formidable obstacle.

Football Fanzone

Premier League officials first floated the idea of a 39th game last spring, with clubs due to face each other in a number of locations around the world.

It was met with widespread opposition in the traditional football community, with many international confederations concerned that hosting Premier League matches would have a negative impact on their own domestic competitions.

Ferguson is firmly opposed to controversial plans for a 39th Premier League game.

Learn about the Gamba Osaka football team who will face Manchester United

(CNN) — Manchester United manager Alex Ferguson has come out against the idea of a a 39th Premier League game to be played in Asia.

“I certainly am not in favor of it.

“The nitty gritty is that we could look back in 30 years and say that Manchester United was the world champion and that is what this club is about and that is why it is important for us to win it.”

But recently there have been some conciliatory noises coming out of the Far East, with Asian Football Confederation president Mohamed bin Hammam indicating qualified support.

Read More Here Going Here

Betting Markets Predict Supreme Court Will Strike Down Individual Mandate

And if the market is any indication, the decision is not going to be pretty for the president.

As it stands now, the odds are in Obama’s favor. “We just can’t comprehend the opposition.”

Smithson said Europeans have a “massive interest” in betting on U.S. Romney’s odds stand at 5 to 4, or about 44 percent.

“Being blunt, I think that most Europeans think the U.S. That same $100 bet today would only yield about $140.. Nadex, a Chicago-based stock exchange, tried to establish an exchange for political event stocks, but it was struck down by federal regulators.

From New York to London, traders on the political stock market Intrade are buying stock to predict how the court will rule. As America waits for the Supreme Court to rule on Obama’s health care law, people around the world are gambling more than their health insurance on the court’s decision.

There is a 75 percent chance the court will rule the individual mandate, or requirement that every American buy health insurance, is unconstitutional, according to the Ireland-based market.

Americans looking to tap into the political betting game will have to set their sights overseas. is absolutely mad that it doesn’t have a public health care system,” Smithson said. On March 25, the day before oral arguments began, Intrade put the probability that the court would overturn the mandate at 35 percent. Ladbrokes, a London-based gambling company, has Obama’s odds of winning at 8 to 13, or about 62 percent likelihood that he will be reelected. presidential election in m88 gambling houses and political stock markets throughout the UK, Smithson said.

“The markets are cautiously favorable toward Obama right now, but there is still so much uncertainty,” Strumpf said, noting the unstable economies in both the United States and Europe. “That’s about as big a lead as any candidate could probably have this far out.”

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission ruled in April that “the contracts involve gaming and are contrary to the public interest and cannot be listed or made available for clearing or trading.”

While Obama tends to be more popular in Europe than in the U.S., Smithson said there has been a “very sharp move toward Romney” over the past six weeks.

In early May, if someone had bet $100 that Romney would win, they had the prospect of winning about $220, Smithson said. politics, but few are putting money on the Supreme Court’s decision because there is a “complete lack of appreciation for why it should be so politically contentious.”

In the U.K., on the other hand, gambling on politics is “extraordinarily big business,” said Mike Smithson, a former BBC journalist and founder of

And because the market pulls predictions from a large group of political junkies, financial analysts and people who heavily research the topic, it is probably the “best predictor,” said Koleman Strumpf, professor of business economics at the University of Kansas School of Business, who studies political stock markets.

“Decisions by small groups of people in a closed room are hard to forecast,” Strumpf said, but “this is probably the best forecast.”

Betting on event outcomes such as the Supreme Court ruling and political elections is generally not legal in the U.S., although thousands of Americans use European-based markets to make money off political outcomes, Strumpf said.

In March, before the Supreme Court began hearing the health care challenge, the market was considerably more optimistic that the individual mandate would survive. Within two days of the oral arguments, that probability shot above 60 percent.

World News Videos | US News Videos


So far Europeans have wagered more than 10 million pounds ($1.6 million dollars) on the U.S

Full Article Going Here

Online Wetten-Convenient and Easy Way to Bet for Sports And Earn Profits

Trust me; once you get a hang of it, you can become quite an expert and can surely win some really good bets. In fact, this betting has given rise to another popular business and that is, bookmaking. In most of the cases, people fun88 bet for the favorite teams. Then you actually need to wager a fixed amount of money on that team or animal. You can sit at home in front of the desktop system, have a cup of coffee and start betting. Internet betting combines sports betting with bookmaking and technology available over the web that makes it possible for a sheer number of people all over the world to take part in events that may be happening in other parts of the world.

Online betting for sports has become quite popular and widespread these days. These wagers are the persons who might be the same as the one you have placed or they might be placed on other teams. Bookmaking is something that helps in bringing the risks involved in betting to a minimum without which betting would become very risky as the betting odds are placed against events which nobody has any control over.


Your rating: None

In order to get a hang of how online sports betting works, it is important to know about the basic concept of sports betting. You can win if you place the right bet or even you can lose also in case you don’t. The basic concept is really not that difficult to understand. The betting of any sports is real fun. This is why it is vital to do your lessons on sports betting before you place the bet.

The World Wide Web has come into picture in online betting for sports and this has led to the increase in popularity of online betting (online wetten). However, like everything else, online betting is something that is also a game of chance. For more info,please visit Online Wetten and Sportwetten Bonus .. And the main thing is that setting up an account is very easy and convenient and you can place the betting odds anytime you want and from anywhere you want.

Author’s Bio: 

Online betting (online wetten) has been rapidly gaining popularity in the recent times. Other individuals will too place their own wagers on the team they think will win. Remember, all you have to do is predict which teams or animals, in case of sports involving use of any animals like horse racing, is most likely to win at the game. Hence, there is a possibility of losing a significant amount of money. In case if your team is winning the game, you will win all the money that the others had wrongly wagered or vice versa.

Shrin Sndu has good knowledge about differnt games,including football, tennis, basketball, handball, hockey and motorsport. The author has worked as a famous bookee with a few renowned organizations. One of the major reasons why it is so popular is simply because it is convenient

Get the facts Going Here

The Origins of Betta Fish

Bets would be placed on a simple fight between two little fish in which men might wager their money, homes, and even children on the outcome. Our finned friends have begun to catch on big-time, but most people don’t even know where these little guys came from. In fact, roughly 150 years ago, Betta fish fighting was actually taxed and regulated by the king of Siam (Siam is now called Thailand, and is where the “Siamese Fighting Fish” title comes from).

Over the last twenty or thirty years, Betta fish have become increasingly popular pets in not only the United States (where there popularity of late has really boomed) but also all over the world. In fact, what he was actually seeing was the first of a natural mutation in the Betta Splendens species that gave them more color. What’s more incredible, is that the fish species really only has a few base colors in its genetic code, but combining these has produced the wide array of fish we see today.

. Despite being an understandably opposed practice today, prized-fighting Bettas had relatively cushy lives: After a Betta had won a single fight, he was usually retired and allowed to breed thereafter.

It was not until 1896 that Bettas began to appear outside of Asia, when a few breeding pairs were introduced in Germany, and not until 1910 did the species start to show up in America. As such, the Siamese would breed these fish based on the “bravest”, largest, and strongest/most aggressive fish instead of the colors and flowing fins they are bred for today. The colorful, beautiful fish we keep as pets today have a history, and what a history it is. In fact, the Betta of this time were generally dull-colored and flowing fins were seen as undesirable because they were easier for an enemy fish to bite at.

As many of you may already know, Betta fish originated in Thailand and bordering nations, and were originally bred for fighting, not for show. Though scientist Frank Locke of San Franciso received several Betta Splendens, he thought he had discovered a new species when one of his fish had longer, red fins. In fact, the Betta fish of 150+ years ago wouldn’t be recognizable as the same species today. Have I got you curious? Ready to learn the mysteries behind that beauty swimming back and forth in his 10 galllon tank on your desk? Alright, here we go!

It is also worth noting that these Betta fish fights were not (thankfully) to the death, instead the first fish to retreat was determined the loser. Since then, these fish have been bred increasingly for color, fin size/shape, and a favorable demeanor and raised to be sold as household pets, not fighters.

But it took some time to get here, and Bettas even today are continuously bred for new color combinations and such Going Here

Have You Requested A Steam Refund? Why?

Have You Requested A Steam Refund? Why?

Steam refunds have only been around for a week, and it seems like a lot of people are already using them. Steam has evolved into a minefield morass of potential raw deals, between Early Access games that may never be finished, shovelware, and “full” games made of hacked together Unity demos.

To contact the author of this post, write to or find him on Twitter @vahn16.

You’re reading Steamed, Kotaku’s page dedicated to all things in and around Valve’s stupidly popular PC gaming service. If you’ve found anything cool/awful on Steam, send us an email to let us know.

. Have you used the new feature at all? If so, why? Did it work?

Have you asked for a refund (or refunds) on Steam? What game (or games) had your piggy bank squealing for the return of its stolen innards? Was it shorter? Longer? And was it broken or unfinished, or did you simply dislike it as, well, a game? Have you managed to get a refund on a game you played longer than two hours or owned longer than two weeks? Also, when you requested your refund, did you ask for it to come in the form of Steam Wallet money or regular money? And lastly, have you tried gaming the system, getting a refund for something you finished? Or copying a DRM-free game and then returning it? Oh, and obviously, regardless of why you did it: did Valve grant your request? Did you get your money back?

Valve’s implementation of Steam refunds has been contentious, but there’s no disputing that they need to exist in some form or fashion. Games, culture, community creations, criticism, guides, videos–everything. However, one of Valve’s stipulations–specifically, that refunds will be granted unless you’ve played a game for more than two hours–has given makers of shorter games reason to worry. What if people play their games to completion and then return them? So far, Valve has yet to add any extra stipulation to their policy concerning shorter games Going Here

BT steps up pay-TV battle with European football offer

“We see this as incrementally negative for Sky.”


(Editing by Paul Sandle and Mark Potter)

LONDON: Britain’s BT raised the stakes in its battle with arch-rival Sky on Tuesday by making European Champions League football matches available for free to its television customers.

The group also said it would launch a new Ultra High Definition channel to showcase its live sport, threatening to steal the mantle of technological innovation from Sky which has helped it to become the dominant pay-TV provider in Britain.

“BT Sport is delivering exactly the kind of growth that we anticipated,” said BT Consumer CEO John Petter, explaining that his division had seen five consecutive quarters of top and bottom-line growth, helped by demand for sports.. At 1505 GMT, BT stock was up 0.3 percent at 440 pence, while Sky’s was down 1.3 percent at 1,013 pence.

(US$1 = 0.6545 pounds)

Its sports channels can now be seen in 5.2 million homes, helped by wholesale deals.

The move, after BT outbid Sky to the exclusive UK rights to the competition by paying a record 897 million pounds, is the latest bet by the telecoms firm on using the appeal of football clubs such as Barcelona and Bayern Munich to draw in customers to its TV and broadband packages.

With 7.7 million broadband customers and 1.14 million TV customers, BT is betting it can persuade more subscribers to upgrade to also take a TV service, where customer loyalty and customer bills tend to be higher.

The 169-year-old BT stunned the sporting world in 2012 when, having recovered from two major profit warnings in 2008 and 2009, it won the rights to show 38 live English Premier League matches a season, its first foray into sports.

It trumped that in 2013 when it won the right to show all the Champions League matches from 2015 to 2018, paying more than double the previous price to beat Sky and free-to-air broadcaster ITV .

Revealing its line-up for the games, it named former England captain Gary Lineker as a presenter alongside playing stars Steven Gerrard and Michael Owen and managers Glenn Hoddle and Harry Redknapp, who will work as pundits.

But analysts believe Sky could face some push back from customers who question why they should pay so much when one of the biggest events in the sporting calendar is no longer available on its platform.

The offer may also help to persuade some Sky customers, and those on other platforms such as Virgin Media and TalkTalk , to move over to BT for the full suite of telephony, fibre broadband and TV.

“We view the launch as positive for BT with aggressive pricing aimed to gain subscriber momentum,” said RBC Capital Markets analyst Michael Bishop. Sky, which has the rights to the majority of the domestic Premier League matches, has said audiences for European football nights have dwindled in recent years as English clubs largely failed to reach the latter stages of the tournament.

Revealing its plans to the strains of Handel’s Zadok the Priest, the tournament’s theme tune, BT said customers who take BT TV would be able to watch Champions League matches for free, while those who take BT Broadband could see them for 5 pounds per month.

Bishop rates BT shares as “outperform” and Sky’s as “underperform” Going Here

Understanding The Asian Handicap Bet In Football Betting

In addition, the ‘handicap’ in Asianhandicap is derived from the fact that a handicap is applied to one of the two teams in every match. In the unlikely event of a draw, you will receive a full refund of your bet amount.

. It originated in Asia, hence the name, and has since become an extremely popular form of football bet, particularly among online bookmakers. A prudent bettor will always gain as much information as possible about a particular style of betting, and how the odds for the bet are calculated, before considering placing a bet using that style of betting.

Many people who are relatively inexperienced in the realm of football betting are confused by the concept of the Asian handicap bet. With a fixed odds bet, you can place a bet on any of those three possibilities happening. If you fail to take the handicap into account, you might place a bet on the team that is obviously stronger, only to have the other team win simply because of the handicap that was applied to their score.

Reducing The Possible Outcomes

With Asianhandicap betting, however, one of those possibilities is eliminated. The key is to understand how the Asian handicap bet really works. It is extremely important that you take the handicap into account when you place an Asianhandicap bet. Once you understand how it works, you will then be in a position to properly take advantage of the Asian handicap bet. The reason for its popularity is, in fact, its simplicity. Once a bettor is able to understand the Asian handicap bet, he soon comes to realize that it is an easier bet to place than a fixed odds bet, because it reduces the number of possibilities that you can choose from.

This is done by giving one team ‘free goals’. The number of free goals a team gets might range from a quarter of a goal to several goals, depending on the difference between the level of skill between the two teams. There are therefore only two options left – one side wins or the other side wins. The draw is no longer an option on which you can place a bet. Depending on which actually happens, you either win or lose money, subject to the odds that were provided for your particular bet.

Once you take the existence of the handicap into account, however, Asianhandicap betting becomes extremely simple. The purpose of this handicap is to even out the odds, and make the chances of either team winning the match as even as possible.

Most people, even those unfamiliar with football betting, understand the regular fixed odds bet as a matter of general knowledge. Some first-time bettors simply start placing Asian handicap bets without truly understanding how it works, and they lose money needlessly as a result. You no longer have to take into account the possibility of a draw, and you need only determine which team will win outright. The concept is simple, with three possible outcomes to every match. This is because the Asian handicap bet is a relatively recent development in the world of football betting. One side wins, the other side wins, or there is a draw Going Here Launches New Football Odds Comparison Product.

Other websites tend to

present this information in an overwhelming and hard to navigate manner,

but WSN now makes it easy to compare odds quickly through a simple user

interface that gives bettors direct access to key betting markets all on

one page.

Contact: Daegan Stafford-Crews, Available at these numbers during

Shanghai business hours (GMT+8), +86-021-6386-6650 ext 816 (China),

+1-919-636-5753 (US), +44(0)20-7993-6896 (UK),

Access to the new WSN odds comparison is now available at:

- World Sports Network Helps Football Bettors Find the Best Odds

Faster and Easier

SHANGHAI, China, December 19 /PRNewswire/ –

About WSN

The odds comparison coverage includes:

- Over 200 different betting markets for major football events

- Over 600 different football competitions

- Over 200,000,000 current and historical odds

World Sports Network operates the free consumer sports website Even

though other websites publish some of this information, nobody has the

same professional focus or extensive coverage of Asian Handicap or Asian

Totals as WSN. This product caters to professional punters who know what

they are looking for and need that information ASAP,” commented COO

Kevin McCrystle.

Committed to giving sports bettors improved access to professional

sports betting information, World Sports Network today announces the

launch of its new football betting odds comparison product.

“WSN has been a leader for some time in betting statistics,

but we wanted to give our users better access to football odds. A premier destination for football bettors, WSN publishes an

array of valuable sports betting information, including odds from around

the world, the Internet’s fastest football live score service,

betting news and analysis, and informative match statistics and trends.

Headquartered in Shanghai, China, WSN provides all of its content in

both English ( and Chinese (,

showing that the world of football is as flat as a soccer pitch.

The new odds comparison will compliment WSN’s already popular

live score service and informative matchup pages.

. In addition to current odds for more than 20

bookmakers, the new product will also feature an interactive historical

odds chart.

With coverage of nearly every available bet for thousands of

upcoming football matches, this product provides bettors with an

incredibly wide and deep amount of information Going Here – Quality of Nuclear Devices Questioned – Politics | Republican Party | Democratic Party

It meant the warheads, after testing that makes the original trigger unsuitable for reuse, could be reassembled with a new trigger and put back into service.

The change in manufacturing process, from wrought to cast, has been a subject of debate and extensive analysis among those involved in nuclear weapons. halted in 1992, and through a different process than the replacements. Such approval means they are ready to use.


Resting atop the Trident II missile, the W88 warhead is among the mainstays of the country’s submarine-based nuclear arsenal. The original triggers were made with the benefit of underground nuclear testing, which the U.S. This process is viewed by metallurgists as producing a stronger product.

Officials say the cost figures reflect the fact that new facilities and a new process for making the replacement triggers had to be developed. For years, however, testing the warhead’s components to ensure the weapon produces the intended blast instead of a fizzle has been complicated by a lack of replacement plutonium triggers.

Last summer, the first replacement plutonium trigger in 18 years received “diamond stamp” approval signaling it was ready for use in a warhead. She posed that question in a letter last Friday to Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman.

In an e-mail response to the watchdog group’s claims, Bernard Pleau, a spokesman for the agency’s office at Los Alamos, said the changes do not “compromise the integrity of the parts.

By H. The bottom line _ the pits produced meet all functional quality requirements for use and are fully accepted by NNSA.”

Kevin Roark, a spokesman for the Los Alamos weapons program said the changes in specifications “have been fully explored, fully vetted and fully accepted by NNSA and engineering analysis (conducted) by us.”

In a warhead’s detonation, a conventional explosive packaged around the pit compresses the plutonium inward, creating enough pressure for an atomic chain reaction. no longer conducts underground nuclear tests, the Los Alamos scientists had to rely on other sources to replicate the original triggers and guarantee that the replacements would be as reliable as the old. The scientist spoke on condition of anonymity because of the sensitive nature of the issue.

The Project on Government Oversight says it was told by some Los Alamos scientists that the trigger certified last July and known as the W88 pit needed 72 waivers from the specifications used for the original triggers, including 53 engineering-related changes.. JOSEF HEBERT, Associated Press Writer

A single trigger made at Rocky Flats cost less than $4 million. These means included small-scale plutonium tests, technical data from past underground tests, and computer codes and models.

The new ones were made by using a mold to cast the grapefruit-size plutonium sphere. That required extensive computer modeling and testing to assure precise shape, size and weight and that the triggers meet performance requirements.

On the Net:

A watchdog group now is raising questions about whether the replacement triggers, also known as pits, can be guaranteed to be as reliable as those already in some 400 W88 warheads. Scientists at Los Alamos and at the government’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California concluded the change did not degrade the reliability of the triggers, according to NNSA. – Quality of Nuclear Devices Questioned – Politics | Republican Party | Democratic Party | Political Spectrum

The government acknowledges differences between the old triggers and their replacements.

The agency acknowledged there were “more than 70 engineering authorizations” _ as it characterizes the waivers _ approved in the new W88 pit certification and that this was a “relative high number.”

The government will not say how many W88 warheads it has. That, in turn, creates the high temperatures and pressure to ignite a “secondary” nuclear component. That difference in cost was noted by Brian in the letter to the energy secretary.

But Los Alamos and agency officials bristle at suggestions that the new triggers might be less reliable or have flaws that could affect their performance.

Precise manufacture of the trigger is essential.

National Nuclear Security Administration:

Sunday, January 20, 2008

Los Alamos National Laboratory:

“With this large number of waivers, how is it possible to objectively tell whether the pit will even work?” said Danielle Brian, executive director of the group that monitors nuclear weapons-related activities. The result is a a massive hydrogen blast.

Any variation or flaw in the pit could cause a warhead not to detonate properly or to detonate with less explosive power than expected.

Project on Government Oversight:


Since last summer’s announcement, the Los Alamos lab has made 10 additional W88 triggers. To scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, that was a milestone to celebrate. The number has been estimated at about 400, in addition to an estimated 3,200 W76 warheads that also are designed for the submarine-based Trident II missile.

Raymond Jeanloz of the University of California at Berkeley, a longtime adviser to the government on nuclear weapons issues, said in an interview he is not surprised there have been some modification in the W88 warhead, but that does not mean it is less reliable.

“The manufacturing process for the W88 has been incredibly, thoroughly vetted,” said Jeanloz. He was on a panel that last year concluded the plutonium in warhead triggers is much sturdier than previously thought, with a life span of as much 100 years.

Copyright 2008 The Associated Press. The last of the original triggers were manufactured in the late 1980s.

At least one other replacement pit required 71 specification waivers, a Los Alamos scientist indirectly involved in the production process told The Associated Press. At Los Alamos, it has cost an estimated $430 million over 10 years to certify the first trigger. So far, nine have earned the “diamond stamp” from the National Nuclear Security Administration, which oversees the lab’s programs. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Because the U.S. The original triggers, all made at the now-closed Rocky Flats facility in Colorado, Going Here

Tree species diversity and composition in relation to forest borders in two old-field successional stands at Allerton Park, Piatt County, Illinois USA.

1998. 5.54 3.35

Celtis occidentalis L. August 13, 1936.

Scott M. acorns relative to

the seed mass of wind dispersed species may afford the Quercus spp.

seeds an advantage in penetrating through grassland plant communities

(Jokela and Sawtelle, 1985; Fowler, 1986; Hamrick and Lee, 1987). The soils consist of Miami (Oxyaquic Hapludalf) loams and

Xenia (Aquic Hapludalf) and Russell (Typic Hapludalf) silt loams. M. W. 118(4): 392-398.

accepted 6/18/06

The greater percentage of border perimeter shared with forest

during succession and a narrower configuration of stand 1 with respect

to stand 2, most likely contributed to the greater diversity of stand 1

by providing a proximal seed source during colonization and old-field


Crow, T. Soil Survey of Piatt County, Illinois. K. The stand is at least 6 m above the

floodplain of the Sangamon River, but can occasionally have standing

water in depressions associated with Sunbury silt loam. B. The largest size class (41 + cm) was dominated by Q.

imbricaria. Ecology. At Allerton Park, we studied two forest stands with differing

original amounts of forest border that developed on pastureland

abandoned in the 1930′s. There were

798 stems per ha having a total basal area of 21.1 m2 per ha for stand


Bey, C. 6.87 * 14.45

Fraxinus americana L. 1.2 65.0 4.9

Celtis occidentalis L. Illinois

Nature preserves Commission, Springfield, IL.

Johnson, W. Differing seed dispersal mechanisms in upland forests

(wind, bird, or mammal) are important in determining the ability of

trees to invade an old-field. 179 p.

The two stands had similar species composition (Tables 1 and 2). 0.0 0.0 12.0

Malus spp. 1976. Stand 2 had 50 percent of its border forested along its

northern boundary. 0.3 0.0 0.0

Morus rubra L. Undisturbed vegetation. 0.6 0.6 0.3

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.9 0.0 0.3

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. imbricaria was the most common species, followed by U.

americana and J. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. McCune. These were also scaled to 100 and are referred to hereafter as

IVb. Intra-

and inter-stand comparisons and their implications for succession

mechanisms. Transactions of the

Illinois State Academy of Science. 0.6 0.3 2.5

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.0 0.0 1.2

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. imbricaria, Fraxinus americana L., and C.

occidentalis also had high numbers of stems in this size class. Composition of an upland,

streamside forest in Piatt County, Illinois. J. 3.71 3.90

Ulmus rubra Muhl. Tree stratum composition and distribution in the

streamside forest. 0.0 0.3 3.3

Viburnum prunifolium L. 0.06 0.05

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.06 * 0.00

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 12.0 20.1 8.6

Ulmus rubra Muhl. 1997. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Quercus imbricaria Michx. 7.1 15.4 10.5

Quercus velutina Lam. Canadian Journal of

Botany. Experiments on mechanisms of tree

establishment in old-field succession: seedling emergence. 0.0 0.0 3.4

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. M. americana had greater abundance in this

stand (Table 3). were present in high

densities. The variance of the VP values is

better than other estimates of H’ variance (Adams and McCune,

1979), making the VP values reliable for significance testing (Zahl,

1977). and R. Seed

dispersal by the blue jay, which, unlike most birds, caches acorns in

the soil and under litter, could explain Q. 1991. The values were pooled because many

species were absent from a large number of the plots, making an analysis

of individual species problematic. Koch 6.2 4.9 2.9

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.7 6.8 4.2

Acer saccharum Marsh 7.8 3.6 0.7

Tilia americana L. Koch. A. Koch 2.2 1.2 0.6

Quercus alba L. L. A. K. Growth and water use

efficiency of Quercus alba, Q. imbricaria and other Quercus spp. 1.71 1.13

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 1.24 * 0.05

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Ecology. alba outnumbered Q. Pennsylvania

Ave. J. 3.39 * 1.53

Ulmus americana L. K.

Schneid. L. Department of

Civil Engineering. However, the north side of Stand 2 is within 30 m of the

main floodplain and transitional forests of the Sangamon River (Figure

1). 1.6 78.9 7.0

Juglans nigra L. 1976. 1974. American Midland Naturalist.

115(1): 131-145.

Adams, J. I. imbricaria in stand 2. Slopes range from 0 to 7

percent. 1967. Koch 0.1 7.5 0.6

Quercus alba L. Dixon. 1:5,000.

AM-2 [Flight of Piatt County, Illinois]. Smith, and C. Stand 1 has a long and

narrow configuration (Figure 1) and was almost completely surrounded by

mature forest, having 92 percent of its perimeter contiguous with

original forest. R. 3.31 * 6.39

Quercus rubra L. 62: 559-563.

De Steven, D. L. 3.3 0.0 0.0

Platanus occidentalis L. W. Microsite requirements for germination and

establishment of three grass species. 0.19 0.15

Ulmus rubra Muhl. saccharinum, a

floodplain species, on upland stand 2 is noteworthy. Juglans

nigra also did not differ significantly in mean values for any of the

variables between stands. A. 7.4 19.8 14.5

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 38.9 39.5 5.3

Prunus serotina Ehrh. We hypothesized that a forest stand that

developed on a narrow field with 92 percent forest border would have

greater species diversity than a forest stand that developed on a wider

field with only a 50 percent forest border. 0.2 39.5 2.4

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Robert

Allerton set aside this land as a nature reserve. and R. and S. 56: 109-116.

Root, T. The distance to nearest forested border in 1936 was determined

from aerial photographs, border forests being defined as those

contiguous areas having at least 50 percent canopy closure. Sawtelle. The floodplains were

dominated by Acer saccharinum L. 18.2 5.3 0.0

Quercus rubra L. 1.2 47.5 4.9

Quercus velutina Lam. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Morus rubra L. The other stand with a higher percentage of

forest perimeter and a narrower configuration was more diverse. 0.8 57.9 3.6

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. T. In the 41 cm and

greater size class, Q. and Celtis

occidentalis L. Bulletin of the

Torrey Botanical Club. O. 4.6 6.8 3.6

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 35.8 26.3 4.9

Gleditsia triacanthos L. 1991b. R., D. In: Becker, Going Here

I want to know about Nukes.?


With the MT nukes reserved for hardened targets like underground command post.

IE: a 8 MT nuke, would not effect 100 times the area of a 8KT nuke.

Most nukes have a destructive area around 114 sq miles.

Larger nukes, do not have a correspondingly larger effective area.

About 6 miles out from ground zero. That’s why most nukes are in the 200 KT to 150 KT range

Since most of the energy would be released upward into the atmosphere.

Radiation effects can extend out 150 miles, downwind, depending on wind speed and direction Going Here

Are ‘Mini-Nukes’ The New Big Thing?

conducted its last nuclear test in 1992, and while the White House opposes the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty — which the U.S. “If you were to have a problem with a weapon system that you needed to rectify using a test, you would want to be able to do that faster,” J. ET Sunday.

AP Photo/Canadian Press/Tim Krochak

Copyright 2003 CBS. Five people watching the surf from Hurricane Bill were swept out to sea at Acadia National Park in Maine.

However, the administration is paying increasing attention to the possibility that it might at some point have to resume testing if there were a question about the reliability of the nation’s stockpile. “Nuclear weapons have a unique ability to destroy both agent containers and (Chemical and Biological Weapons),” reads a 2001 Pentagon study.

A kiloton is equal to the explosive force of one thousand tons of TNT. According to Sen. Dianne Feinstein, a California Democrat, asked recently.

By Jarrett Murphy

“One way you ensure that there are no safe havens is to be able to go deep,” said Armed Services Committee chairman Rep. Crouch, the assistant secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, said in a briefing last year.

But some members of Congress believe conventional weapons could do the same job, and worry that mini-nukes would blur the line between conventional and nuclear weapons.

At the same time, however, last month the United States produced a plutonium pit — the core of a fission bomb — for the first time in 14 years. Other efforts include developing lasers and computers to simulate aspects of nuclear tests.

Nuclear Stockpiles: President Bush has agreed to dramatic reductions in the number of nuclear weapons in the U.S. Nelson.

Announcing its approval of the bill Friday, the Senate Armed Services committee stressed that nothing in the repeal means it has authorized “the testing, acquisition, or deployment of a low-yield nuclear weapon.”

The ban — named after sponsors Elizabeth Furse, D-Ore., retired, and John Spratt, D-S.C. development of low-yield nuclear weapons.

The Bush administration may get permission to create kinder, gentler or at least smaller nuclear weapons if Congress overturns a ban on doing so.

The defense appropriations bill now winding its way through the Hill contains a clause revoking the 1993 Spratt-Furse amendment, which prohibits the development of so-called “low-yield” nuclear weapons – bombs that pack a punch of less than five kilotons.

A memo obtained by a British newspaper indicates that at a conference this summer, Defense and Energy department officials will consider questions like: “What is the uncertainty in confidence and potential risk threshold for a test recommendation–what would demand a test?”

Last year, the U.S. Duncan Hunter, R.-Calif., last May. In the modern U.S. All rights reserved.

“How can we effectively seek to dissuade others from developing nuclear weapons while we are going forward with the development of new nuclear weapons ourselves?” Sen. D. arsenal, the submarine-launched Mk-5 holds eight W88 warheads of 475 kilotons each.

The move to clear the legal hurdles on manufacturing mini-nukes is part of a broad review of U.S. According to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the move “restores the nation’s ability to make nuclear weapons,” and was needed so the Energy Department could replace pits found unsafe or destroyed through regular check-ups.’s Jarrett Murphy takes a look at the prospects for the U.S. Last May, he and Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed to slash their active arsenals by nearly two-thirds, to 1700 to 2200 warheads each, within 10 years. arsenal. has signed but not ratified — the administration says it has no plans to conduct a test. wants to stop proliferation.

But some experts contend that no bomb of any size could go very deep, because the heavier the bomb, the harder the impact — and the harder the impact, the more likely the bomb would explode before it reached sufficient depth.

Testing — The U.S. “Unless we do a lot more research and development and we find some quantum breakthrough in conventional systems, to go deep is going to require a nuclear capability.”.

The Foster Panel, which studied the testing issue last year, recommended improvements that would allow a test within three months to a year of deciding to do so. Others contend that making more bombs is a bad idea if the U.S. A bomb of just one kiloton, detonated 30 meters below the earth, can open a crater wider than a football field, according to Princeton physicist Robert W. spent more in real terms on atomic defense activities than since 1962.

Strategy — In its Nuclear Posture Review last year, the administration identified Iraq, Iran, Syria, Libya, North Korea as countries where “contingencies” could arise that U.S. Edward Kennedy, the administration has budgeted $700 million for studying how testing might resume. “nuclear strike capabilities” must be geared towards, according to a leaked copy of the report.

The 1993 low-yield ban that the current defense bill would delete stated that “it shall be the policy of the United States not to conduct research and development which could lead to the production by the United States of a new low-yield nuclear weapon, including a precision low-yield warhead.”

CAROUSEL – People watch as water breaches a rock wall at Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia, Canada, Sunday, August 23, 2009. policy on nuclear weapons, which has included:

Bunker busters — For the second year in a row, the Energy Department is requesting $15 million to study the need for a Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP).

Supporters say these weapons might be necessary to deal with so-called “hard and deeply buried targets” in rogue states and terrorist camps, of which there might be 10,000 in the world.

But the administration says smaller nuclear arms may eventually be needed to deal with the emerging threat of rogue states hoarding weapons of mass destruction.

Defense officials said in 2002 that at present, the U.S could go from the decision to test to a trial run in two to three Going Here

U.S. Tomahawk Missiles Deployed Near China Send Message. Is this considered a threat to the Chinese government ?

“There’s been a decision to bolster our forces in the Pacific,” says Bonnie Glaser, a China expert at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington. in its neighborhood. Four of the 18 ballistic-missile subs no longer carry nuclear-tipped Trident missiles. . But this one was different: for nearly three years, the U.S. U.S.S. (See pictures of the U.S. The 14 Trident-carrying subs are useful in the unlikely event of a nuclear Armageddon, and Russia remains their prime target. military in the Pacific.)

That’s why alarm bells would have sounded in Beijing on June 28 when the Tomahawk-laden 560-ft. superweapon had suddenly surfaced nearby. military has used repeatedly against targets in Afghanistan, Bosnia, Iraq and Sudan. Florida surfaced, also on the same day, at the joint U.S.-British naval base on Diego Garcia, a flyspeck of an island in the Indian Ocean. “There is no doubt that China will stand up and take notice.”

If China’s satellites and spies were working properly, there would have been a flood of unsettling intelligence flowing into the Beijing headquarters of the Chinese navy last week. Ohio popped up in the Philippines’ Subic Bay. And the Klaxons would have maxed out as the U.S.S. Navy has been dispatching modified “boomers” to who knows where (they do travel underwater, after all). Instead, they hold up to 154 Tomahawk cruise missiles each, capable of hitting anything within 1,000 miles with non-nuclear warheads.

Source :

Their capability makes watching these particular submarines especially interesting. More alarms were likely sounded when the U.S.S. A new class of U.S. Michigan arrived in Pusan, South Korea, on the same day. But the Tomahawk-outfitted quartet carries a weapon that the U.S. In all, the Chinese military awoke to find as many as 462 new Tomahawks deployed by the U.S. It was an Ohio-class submarine, which for decades carried only nuclear missiles targeted against the Soviet Union, and then Russia Going Here

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